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Исследовательская работа

«EXCELSIOR - 2013»

Секция ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК

 

КАК МЫ МОЖЕМ ПОМОЧЬ ПРИРОДЕ?

HOW CAN WE HELP NATURE..?

 

Гаврилова Марина, МБОУ «Чуманкасинская СОШ», 8 класс

Васильева Виктория, МБОУ «Чуманкасинская СОШ», 8 класс

Научный руководитель:

Мясникова Надежда Михайловна, учитель английского языка МБОУ «Чуманкасинская СОШ»

 

Introduction

 The world of nature is an exciting place that is waiting to awe you with colorful adventures and amazing new discoveries. Nature is easily accessible and can be explored in your backyard, garden, near-by forest or any public park. We can begin to rediscover the wonders of the natural world and help to save it. Looking for ways to give Mother Nature a helping hand? It's easier than you might think!

We want to provide this information to help people to understand important things about living in good neighborhood of our environment. The aim of our work is to explore and systematize information about environmental problems and find out the ways to help NATURE.

The tasks are:

·   to learn information about nature, natural environment, environmental problems of our planet in English;

·   to carry out  a survey about our classmates’ knowledge of the ways to help, make a diagram;

·   to find out as many ways to help our NATURE as we can;

·   to write a leaflet about our activity;

·   to distribute the leaflet among schoolchildren.

 

Environmental Problems

The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilization. It probably makes less people to discuss than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is of course one of history's greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable.

 Water pollution.

 The seas, lakes and rivers are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste and pesticides. Water pollution is a serious problem in Russia, and 75% of surface water and 50% of all water in Russia is now polluted.  This has caused health issues in many cities as well as in the countryside. Industrial and chemical waste is often dumped into waterways, including hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked to the large-scale death of fish in the Black and Caspian seas. Lake Baikal was previously a target of environmental pollution from paper plants, but cleanup efforts since then have greatly reduced the ecological strain on the lake. [1,4]

The Volga River, the longest river and one of the most polluted in Europe, is a good example of the cumulative effects of overuse, poor wastewater treatment, and industrial proximity. In addition to pollution, manmade barriers on the Volga, such as dams, block or limit fish migration and alter the habitat of nearly 70 native fish, as well as significantly influencing downstream water regimes and hydrographic patterns.

Air pollution.

Air pollution is a very serious problem.

Russia's air is among the most polluted in the world, although its quality has been improving since the 1990s. 43.8 million tons of pollutants were released into open air in 1993, of which 24.8 million came from industry and 19 million came from vehicles. Overall, over 200 cities in Russia exceed pollution limits, and this is increasing as more vehicles appear on the roads. Air pollution is attributed to 17% of childhood and 10% of adult diseases, as well as 41% of respiratory and 16% of endocrine diseases. [1]

In Moscow just breathing the air is life threatening - equivalent to smoking a pack of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for most Russian cities. In Cheboksary there is also heavy traffic, especially in peak hours. The growth of air pollution in the city does come from other sources as well. For example, the city now has 2 super large heat power stations for its people. Plus, the industrial age in Cheboksary brought more than 20 industrial factories and complexes producing amounts of air pollution each year. [2]

Endangered species

Russia has many protected areas, such as natural parks, which are made to preserve the natural state of environments. There are currently 101 nature reserves that cover a total of over 33.5 million hectares. However, some animals, such as the Amur tiger, polar bear and Amur leopard, are facing extinction. The Russian Lynx is the third most endangered animal in Russia. They are known to be poached very intensely and are used for the meat and skin for clothing. There are a lot of people that even use them for things such as fashion shows. Biologists estimate that there are fewer than 300 left in Russia.

Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect on the planet dies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today will have become extinct twenty years from now. [1]

Global warming

Scientists made an alarming discovery in the 1980s. They found out that the average temperature of the Earth's surface was slowly rising. This trend is called global warming. Today we know that global warming is increasing because more and more gases get into the atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere lets sunlight in and keeps carbon dioxide and other gases from getting out. We need these gases but too much of them trap more heat. This process began when people started using more and more energy in the form of fossil fuels, like oil, gas and coal. We burn fossil fuels to power factories, run cars, produce electricity and heat houses. As fossil fuels burn they let carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. During the last few decades people have also cut down many forests. Trees use carbon dioxide when they make their own food. Fewer trees mean that less carbon dioxide is taken out of the atmosphere. [1]

Soil

Russia devotes about 10 percent of its land to agriculture, but land quality is declining. Erosion carries away as much as 1.5 billion tons of topsoil every year.  Agricultural land management may deteriorate further under Russia's new land privatization as individual farmers try to squeeze short-term profit from their new property. In Russia an estimated 74 million hectares of agricultural land have been contaminated by industrial toxic agents, pesticides, and agricultural chemicals. Considerable land also is lost in the extraction of mineral resources.

Forests (Deforestation)

Forests are valuable habitats.  About half of all the species of animals and plants in the world live in the forests and thousands of forest plants contain substances that can be used in medicines.  Forests are also important because the huge number of plants and trees there provide us with oxygen through a process called photosynthesis and help to regulate the world's climate and atmosphere. This is why they are often referred to as the ‘lungs’ of the earth. [4]

 Yet despite their value, an area of forest is destroyed every year. One and a half acres are cleared every second, an area about the size of a football pitch. Forests now only cover 6% of the world as we cut down the trees for materials such as paper and wood and use the land for farming and crops. [1]

 

Survey: «Don't Just Worry About the Issues,

Do Something! »

We decided to do our survey and explore environmental problems because it is something everyone comes across some day in the near future. We wanted to find out where teenagers understand the gravity of the problem. We especially wanted to know if people try to make a difference.

The average age of survey respondents was between the ages of 11 and 14. Regardless of their age they can make a difference! The teenagers who responded to this survey were from our Chumankasinskaya Secondary School.

 We asked the question: How worried are you about the future of our environment? 27 teens responded that they were very worried about the future. 64 teens said that they are a little worried about it. 9 teenagers replied that they are not worried at all. That means that 91% of the 100 people who responded are somewhat worried about the future of our environment.

We then asked, are you involved in any environmental projects or activities? 27 people responded yes and 73 responded no. Let's break this down....so 91% of the people that took this survey are concerned about the environment, but only 27% are doing something about it. Imagine the impact that the other 73% of concerned children could make!

Survey says: We think about our environment, but don’t act.

 Here are ideas about how teenagers think you can improve our environmental situation:

As you can see, there are lots of activities that can be done to help the environment.

When asked if you thought your generation could make a difference in the earth's environment for generations to come, 60% of teens said yes. 35% are unsure while only 5% said no, they didn't think that they could make a difference. 86% reported have discussed the future of the environment at school.

Speaking of littering, we asked if you'd ever been in trouble for littering or leaving the water running. It was a close result between the 46% who have and the 56% who haven't. Everyone has done it and you're not a horrible person if you have. The past is the past and you can't change it, but what you can impact is the future. If you accidentally drop some litter, pick it up. If you walk out of a room with the water or the light on, be more aware and shut it off.

Good news is 74% of teenagers responded that if a friend littered, they would not.

Lastly, we asked our respondents what they believe will be the top issues concerning our environment over the next 20 years. Here are the top 5 concerns:

 

 

These are children’s concerns. Now what are you going to do about it? We know you hear this all the time, but young people are the future! We hope that this survey has helped narrow your concerns and worries down...now it is time for you and us to decide how to act. Every little bit helps and you as an individual you CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE!!

 

Be Kind to the Nature that’s Close to You.

15 Ways to Help Nature Every Day

Looking for ways to give Mother Nature a helping hand? It’s easier than you might think! Nature isn’t only in remote areas far from home; it’s right around the corner and in your own backyard. Here are 15 ways you can help nature every day:

1. Use natural cleaners. Keep toxins out of the water supply; use vinegar on glass, baking soda on counters and sinks, oil and lemon on wood.

2. Reduce your use of water. Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth. Fix leaky faucets.

3. Reduce your use of energy. Turn off lights you're not using. Turn off computers and other appliances when not in use. Buy energy-efficient appliances and keep them in good repair.

4. Tell parents to leave the car at home. Walk to the corner store instead of driving. Use public transport to get to the work.

5. Recycle. Many communities have expanded the materials they are able to recycle; make sure you are using the box to its fullest extent. If your office, school, apartment building or favourite restaurant doesn’t recycle, ask them to.

6. Be a wise consumer. Buy local products to reduce the need to transport goods. Buy products from environmentally friendly companies, and write the companies to tell them to keep up the good work.

7. Adopt a habitat.  You can help by restoring a place into suitable habitat for wildlife. Contact your local naturalist club for help.

8. Build a birdhouse. Consider the right nest box dimensions for the birds you want to attract.

9. Feed the birds. Many bird species stay in Russia year-round and could use your help to make it through the winter.

10. Compost. Composting is simple once it becomes a habit. Reduce pressure on landfills; dump vegetable peels, fruit cores, tea bags and egg shells into your composter.

11. Plant native flowers and shrubs. Native wildflowers provide food and habitat to birds and butterflies.

12. Offer wildlife a drink. A perfect backyard habitat for wildlife should include a source of clean water, like a backyard pond, birdbath. Keep the birdbath away from shrubs or other places where cats might hide. Keep it shallow and keep it clean.

13. Grow organically. Do not use pesticides or herbicides on your lawn or garden.

14. Don’t drop litter birds and animals can mistake litter for food.  Litter can end up in rivers and block drains, or in the sea and be eaten by fish.  Also, some litter will stay around for thousands of years!

15. Save trees by recycling your own paper.  Paper with a clean side can be made into notepads with a simple staple or a hole to tie a piece of string. [3]

 

 Progress

A lot of people have worked out ways that are likely to help our environment and we are already starting to make a difference. We all need to try to change our ways to help the environment ourselves.

Few months ago we explored the problem of global warming and took part  in an essay competition «What can you do personally to reduce global warming?» Marina Gavrilova became a second place winner.

After that we decided to write a leaflet about environmental problems. Previous work helped us very much. Then we handed it out to our classmates. We wanted them to understand the importance of this question. Also it was very interesting to discuss environmental problems with our friends in English, to find the solutions and explain them to the schoolchildren.

 

Conclusion

Teenagers are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not somebody else's. No human being can stand apart from the environment because each of us is a part of a natural world. We all depend upon our environment and our environment is depending upon us. Our survival and survival of the future generations depend upon a healthy world.

Together we can create a world where every child can play, learn and grow in nature.

We are only teenagers yet but we know we are all part of a family, seven billion strong, in fact, 30 million species strong and we all share the same air, water and soil – borders and governments will never change that.

 

Литература:

1.  Wikipedia. Free encyclopedia [Электрон. ресурс]: –Режим доступа:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page , свободный.

2. Официальный портал органов власти ЧР. Экология Чувашии [Электрон. ресурс]: – Режим доступа:  http://gov.cap.ru/hierarhy_cap.asp?page=./196/4624/5084/5214/5215  , свободный.

3. Nature Canada. Member-based non-profit conservation organization. Be Kind to the Nature that’s Close to You. 13 Ways to Help Nature Every Day [Электрон. ресурс]: - Режим доступа: http://www.naturecanada.ca/enews_april07_helpnature.asp, свободный

4. The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature (RSCN)  [Электрон. ресурс]: - Режим доступа: http://www.rscn.org.jo/orgsite/RSCN/AboutRSCN/Overview/tabid/64/Default.aspx , свободный

5. Peoples trust for the environment [Электрон. ресурс]: - Режим доступа: http://www.ypte.org.uk/environmental/environment-how-can-you-help-protect-it-/81#rubbish  , свободный.

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